随后，来自7个国家的10位专家学者共聚云端，为千余名在线观众带来丰富精彩的主题学术报告：美国马萨诸塞大学阿默斯特分校的Jack Ahern教授提出，风景园林规划设计在构建多功能走廊、绿道网络系统、以水为中心的设计方法、生物多样保护设计、城市海绵管理等方面有助于提升城市韧性、应对气候变化；美国伊利诺斯理工学院的Ron Henderson教授分析自动驾驶汽车对城市设计的影响，从城市空间设计、导航系统以及政策方面探究提升城市乔木覆盖率，进而提升碳捕获的途径；美国康奈尔大学的Jamie Vanucchi教授介绍了一系列设计和研究实验，证明风景园林途径能有效提高受灾土地从大气中去除碳及碳储存的能力；华中农业大学吴昌广副教授从三方面论述了中国传统人居环境营建的“气候逻辑性”，并就中国气候适应性营建智慧的传承与创新进行了阐释；印度风景园林师协会主席Sridevi Rao博士基于两个案例说明风景园林中设计中碳足迹和碳排放效果，并提出应对策略；澳大利亚风景园林师协会主席Claire Martin介绍了澳大利亚风景园林师协会制定的气候行动计划，阐述气候适应性设计下风景园林师职责；波兰华沙生命科学大学Arkadiusz Przybysz教授从绿地布局、植物类型、天气、时间、季节等角度分析不同情境下植物对PM颗粒物的吸附和阻挡情况；挪威生物经济研究院Særheim研究院的Sæbø Arne教授通过举例论证基于自然的解决方案（NBS）在城市可持续性发展中发挥了良好作用；来自英国肯特大学的MarialenaNikolopoulou教授分享热舒适如何影响城市开放空间的使用与活动，并探讨如何将这些影响机制运用到风景园林设计中；华中农业大学张婧雅博士以神农架国家公园为例，基于MARXAN模型构建自然保护区网络，划定优先保护区，为保护管理机构提供实施方案。华中农业大学园艺林学学院副院长张斌教授在论坛闭幕式上表示，面对全球性极端气候频发等问题，风景园林人需要秉持“人与天调”之精神，更深刻地学习和理解自然，在生态文明建设语境下，尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然，推动和建设人与自然的生命共同体。
国际学术报告主题及摘要（Topics and abstracts of international academic reports）
《管子》中说“凡立国都，非于大山之下，必于广川之上”，这是有具体案例的，齐都临淄城的规划，就是这种规划思想的具体体现。此外，公元前2500年左右，在《商君书》当中，商鞅已经认识到城市不能孤立存在，必须和周围的区域统一规划。当时，商鞅在城乡布局时已经考虑到能源、材料等因素，有了一定的用地比例和相对的定额的概念。这样的营城有很多，都是与《管子》规划思想相契合的。比如说，山环水抱、依山傍水才能使城市得到良好的生态环境、健康发展，历史文化名城南京、◆国际学术报告主题及摘要◆（Topics and abstracts of international academic reports）以全球视野促进生态文明建设永续发展Planning and Design Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience中国风景园林学会副理事长、湖北省风景园林学会会长、华中农业大学党委书记 高翅桂林、福州、广州、肇庆，包括成都、潮州、西安、洛阳、兰州都是这方面很好的例子。范围缩小一点，在长江以北一带，无论是造园林还是堆山叠石，主山和主峰通常都立于西北角，为什么？就是为了营造良好的小气候条件，这就是我们的生态智慧的具体实践。
2、Planning and Design Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience
Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Adaptation to climate change has become a fundamental challenge to achieving resilience for cities and regions. Landscape planning and design initiatives and interventions hold a great potential to support adaptation to climate change.
At the metro or regional scale, networks of multi-functional corridors/greenways can restore connectivity to support flows and movement of water, species habitat, and airflow. Such green, blue-green and blue networks aid cities and regions in adapting to new climatic extremes including species migration, flooding, extreme heat and frequent, and managing flood risks from intense precipitation. At the project, or site scale, strategies for climate adaptation include: a water-centric design approach; protecting biodiversity: and new approaches to managing spontaneous urban vegetation. By acting at the metro-regional scale as well as the project scale, planners and designers can help to build resilience capacity.
3、Strategies for Increasing Carbon Capture in the Urban Forest: The Driverless City Project
Professor, Illinois Institute of Technology
The Driverless City Project investigates the urban design implications of autonomous vehicles, including scenarios which would transfer space in the public realm from vehicles to ecological services such as tree planting. This presentation draws on the research of landscape architects, roboticists, and navigational engineers to interrogate spatial design, navigational, and policy strategies to increase the urban tree canopy -- and hence, carbon sequestration -- that might emerge during the transition to electric propulsion and autonomous navigation of vehicles.
4、Experiments in Designing Landscapes for Carbon Removal Symposium: Carbon peak and carbon neutrality, climate positive design in landscape architecture
Assistant Professor, Cornell University
Landscape architecture and design research are proven to be effective and important tools for climate adaptation. Adaptive mitigation is defined by Brian Stone as “climate management activities designed to decrease global greenhouse effect while producing regional climate related benefits in the form of heat management, flood management, enhanced agricultural resilience, and other adaptive benefits’. This paper presents a series of experiments in adaptive mitigation to increase the capacity of troubled lands (idle or abandoned farmlands and flood risk zones) to remove carbon from the atmosphere and store it in aboveground biomass and belowground in soils. The projects presented include studio work and research, and collectively test the capacity of landscape to mitigate climate change while providing multiple co-benefits. Long-term management strategies are a necessary part of this design work, and necessitate a shift toward thinking about landscapes as artifacts of human values, long-term involvement, and decision making. Questions of permanence related to carbon storage and inclusion in carbon marketplaces will be discussed.
5、Elements of the Carbon Footprint in Landscape Architecture
Hon. President, Indian Society of Landscape Architects (ISOLA)
That there is an environmental cost to design is well documented. Primarily, the impact is obscured within the blanket of extraordinary profit, and segments of the supply chain that adds up to the impact at the site itself are not so well documented. That is, if planting, land-works, water-works and industrially produced material use is collated with breakdown of the steps involved in each of these aspects, the burden of achieving 2030 goals would perhaps be mitigated. Framing the problem and questioning established supply chains could perhaps answer this. It is well known that action works well when goals are broken down into objectives. The attempt here is to examine the feasibility of this methodology in improving supply chains with efficient and sustainable pathways. Two well-known case studies from India and two different scales are selected for this analysis. One is at City scale and the other is a public open space. Since both are from different cities in the northern and southern part of India, reference to the geography in all aspects would add to the perspective. This would give a platform for justifying design decisions and their analyses. Each case study is broken down into parameters and then the elements that fulfill the achievement of those parameters are examined. The results as inferences are presented for qualitative aspects and not as quantitative numbers. The advantage is that qualitative inferences are amenable to changes based on parameters and geography whereas quantitative numbers are specific to a site and design. The disadvantage, therefore, is that application of findings are limited to comparable areas, geography, user identity, typologies and not open to forming policy or guidelines in a larger variable context. It is evident from impact on the ground of every nation’s climate change mitigation commitments that legal and financial mechanisms alone do not ensure good practices that add up to ensure 2030 goals. It is in this context that the case studies are used to demonstrate possibilities with alternative pathways to sustainable design.
6、The Argument for Climate + Biodiversity Positive Design
National President, Fellow,
Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA)
The United Nations states that health is both an outcome and a precondition of sustainable development, yet many of the health challenges facing Asia-Pacific cities, are anthropogenic,including increased pollution, rising temperatures, reductions in access to open space, the loss of biodiversity, diminishing water and air quality, extreme weather-related disasters, and global pandemics.
Landscape architects are uniquely placed, bringing expertise in Nature-based Solutions, to galvanise and lead a built environment health response to support local governments to accelerate their nationally determined climate contributions, through sustained private and public sectors investment,in transformative landscape projects that will achieve the scale of urban renewal, restoration and regeneration required.
90% of Australians and 30% of Australia's listed threatened species live and occur in our cities.Through design thinking, we can create healthier and more resilient cities through climate and biodiversity positive design projects, standards, tools, and legislation, by Dramatically reducing operational and embodied carbon emissions by using a greenhouse gas footprint calculator.Seeking to reduce up front embodied emissions to help drive the availability of lower carbon building materials; working towards pathways for low carbon construction materials; and looking at common language for low carbon products and how to specify these in projects.By working with Standards Australia, to develop a Handbook that supports the design,implementation, valuation, and maintenance of urban green infrastructure.By advocating for a consistent approach to valuing urban green infrastructure as an asset class, to support investment decisions and to strengthen economic appraisals.
7、 Urban Greenery: on the Frontline Between PM Pollution and Urban Residents
Assistant Professor, Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Air pollution in urban areas represents great threat to human health. One of the most dangerous inhaled pollutants is particulate matter (PM). PM is composed of liquid and solid particles, organic and inorganic, with an aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.001-100 μm （micron）. PM contain toxic compounds, including trace elements (TE) and organic pollutants. On a local scale, PM is mostly caused by human activities e.g. road traffic, construction work, industrial activities and domestic heating. If PM has been released into the atmosphere, the only possible way to remove it from the air is via vegetation. Urban vegetation can be used as a biological filter, with foliage passively accumulating PM.
The vast majority of published studies refer to organised vegetation, comprising species representing high decorative value and requiring high growing conditions, such as trees and shrubs in parks. These species are not found in the most polluted areas because they are too expensive, require regular maintenance, and environmental conditions in these locations are too harsh for them. Important PM and TE sources in urban areas are often located some distance away from city centres and consequently away from organised urban greenery, thus people who live close to these locations are often exposed to PM concentrations that exceed those recorded in city centres. Therefore, urban vegetation in most polluted areas (e.g. urban wastelands) is on the frontline between air pollution and urban residents. In wasteland areas where there are multiple sources of PM that differ in PM emission intensity, frequency and duration, the plants’ effectiveness at air purification depends primarily on: (i) the distance and location of the plants in relation to the emission source, (ii) the vegetation structure, which should be layered (comprising tall plants and low herbaceous perennial plants), and (iii) species composition, while PM retention (low for tall plants, high for low plants) is the most important individual characteristic when evaluating species.
The concentration of PM and TE in ambient air is especially high during winter periods, when PM emission is increased by greater car traffic and the necessity of domestic heating. Unfortunately, in the temperate climate most of these plants shed leaves for winter. Therefore, in countries where high concentrations of PM are emitted in winter, evergreen species could be a more suitable choice for urban plantings. Among the evergreens, coniferous plants are good choice for air purification due to the abundant wax layer on the needles, smaller leaves and more complex shoot structures. However, these species usually keep needles for more than one year and thus they die because of too ‘heavy loads’ of contaminants. Therefore, conifers from generas tolerant to pollutants should be selected or more sensitive species should be planted at an adequate distance from the emission source. Another solution may be the use of evergreen broad-leaved plants or plants which keep last year foliage through the winter period.
Fuel exhaust and non-exhaust road/vehicle emissions are one of the principal anthropogenic sources of PM in urbanised areas. In many parts of cities, particularly close to streets, trees cannot be planted for safety reasons or due to a lack of space. Urban meadows, especially high perennial meadows located close to busy roads, accumulate PM from the air more effectively than traditional lawns, therefore meadows should replace lawns where possible. The amount of PM accumulated by urban meadows depends less on the biodiversity, species composition and morphological features of individual herbaceous plants making up the meadow and more on the biomass produced and structure of the meadow canopy, which must be a compromise between density and permeability.
The dynamics of PM deposition and subsequent cleaning of the leaves during the season are probably greatly affected by weather conditions, especially precipitation and to a lesser extent by wind. Rainfall remove a considerable proportion of deposited PM from the foliage. The process of PM accumulation by vegetation is very dynamic, and differences in the PM load on the foliage can be large, even after one day. The main fraction removed from leaf surfaces is the large PM fraction, while the smallest PM fraction is retained more permanently. Surprisingly, precipitation also affects PM retention in waxes, which until now was believed to be not affected by rain. The effect of rain on PM accumulated by plants depends on its intensity and duration, and quality (e.g. pH). PM wash off and re-suspension should be recognized as positive process, essential to recover the ability of plants to accumulate PM and to reduce phytotoxic effects of PM accumulated on leaf surfaces.
Different combinations and intensities of stresses occurring in cities (e.g. drought, salinity and air pollution) certainly affect the phytoremediation capacity of plants. Drought and salinity, applied at an intensity and duration typical for urban conditions, significantly reduced the accumulation of PM by P. sylvestris L. plants. Reduced PM accumulation (especially PM fraction 10-100 μm and PM deposited in waxes) resulted mainly from the adverse effects of salinity. It could be due to impact of car exhausts, drought and elevated salt concentration on the amount and quality of waxes on the needles. These new data, have practical consequences in the assessment and prediction of the accumulation of air pollution by urban plants. In light of the above, care to ensure proper growing conditions may be as important as choosing the best species and planting locations.
The negative impact of urban stress on the photosynthetic apparatus is well described, but PM is not considered as a key factor reducing its efficiency. The amount of accumulated PM is negatively correlated with the rate of photosynthesis and Fv/Fm, and positively correlated with stomatal resistance. This may indicate that, together with other urban conditions, PM negatively affects the photosynthetic process for most plant species, which can reduce their productivity and functionality.
Edible crops grown in a polluted environment can be contaminated with PM, which can have a serious impact on food safety. Fruits (e.g. apples and plums) harvested from orchards located close to roads with different traffic intensities accumulate PM. The amount of PM deposited on fruits is comparable to or higher than that on the foliage of trees and shrubs growing in polluted city centres. PM accumulation by fruits depends primarily on: (i) the plant species and most probably the varieties (fruit morphology, especially the amount of wax), (ii) harvest period (late harvest is associated with the negative impact of domestic heating), (iii) maintenance work in the orchard (early pruning of trees will expose fruits to PM), (iv) adverse events during fruit development taking place in the orchard and its immediate surroundings (construction works and fires), and (v) cultivation method (ecological preparations can increase the viscosity of the fruit). The impact of roads seems less significant, nevertheless PM from transport, despite being accumulated in smaller amounts, may be more toxic. Washing with water removes about 50% of the PM accumulated by the fruit.
The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the accumulation of PM and TE by (i) common species of urban wastelands, (ii) urban shrubs and trees in winter time, (iii) urban meadows and (iv) edible fruits. The importance of precipitation in removing deposited PM from foliage, impact of urban conditions on PM accumulation on plants and effect of PM on plants gas exchange will be also presented.
8、Nature Based Solutions Will Contribute to Decrease Emissions and to Increase Livability of the Future Sustainable Cities
Leader of Norvegian Institute of Bioeconomy (NIBIO),
Særheim Research Station, Research Professor
More than 50% of the world population lives in urbanized areas today, and the prediction for 2050 is that urban areas must give space to 2 billion persons more than today, a development that is especially relevant for the south-eastern hemisphere. That means that cities on Tellus, every month until 2050, must give space to 5.5 million new persons if the predicted increase in the urban population takes place. This process will demand the use of valuable areas, often areas of high quality for food production and for biodiversity of vital importance for humans. Another challenge will be to give high quality environments to the urban population. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and airborne pollutants drive climate change and pose severe risks to human health. Cities account for over 70% of global fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. And 80% of urban areas have air pollution levels exceeding the World Health Organization recommendations.
IUCN (2016) defined nature-based solutions (NBS) as “actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural or modified ecosystems, that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits”. We need multiple tools, to develop cities of the future into sustainable units, where the circular economy and NBS support biodiversity, sustainable resource production and reuse. Waist will hardly exist in the future since all biomass and resources are channeled into the circular bioeconomy. However, it will be very important to document the ecosystem services from NBS, and also to put up realistic aims and expectations to their contributions in short and long terms. However, NBS are expected to be one of the key elements to yield high-quality and sustainable urban societies, contributing with multiple ecosystem services (ES), like for example carbon sequestration, better water and air quality, storm water treatment, food production and health promoting environments for the city dwellers. Some examples will be mentioned. To obtain the goals for the future sustainable and livable cities, the policy makers, planners, and those managing and maintaining green elements and hybrid solutions need to communicate and interact closely with each other. All stake holders must be involved to create the sustainable and healthy cities, which need to be maintained with efforts from all parts. In this presentation, examples of NBS and suggestions to premises for the development of sustainable cities will be given in this context.
9、Outdoor Comfort as a Commodity: Enhancing our Adaptive Capacity and Thermal Resilience in the Urban Environment
Professor, Kent University
The last year highlighted the need for inclusive, high quality, open space, as essential to support liveability and resilience. The talk will focus on understanding how the abstract concept of thermal comfort, an inherent characteristic of space, is affecting use and activities in open urban spaces. It will explore the mechanisms through which our adaptive capacity is enhanced, from conscious actions to a range of parameters in the contextual framework of psychological adaptation, temporality and cultural norms, proceeding to discuss how these can be employed in design. Ultimately, it will highlight the need for adaptive capacity and thermal resilience at the individual level, as well as spatial scale, supporting environmental diversity. In a warming climate and at the wake of a global health pandemic, outdoor comfort becomes an important commodity, where the design of open spaces has the potential to play a critical role not only for climate regulation and energy, but also for health, livability and social cohesion.